Graphene the Future of Computing ?

Graphene the Future of Computing ?
Could make your computer a thousand (1000x) times faster.
Superconductive and Ultra-Thin
Conducts electricity 10x times better than copper, and 250 times better than silicon
Researchers built A transistor (Circuit) from graphene and applied current resulting in 1000 times increase in performance

Graphene Computers Work 1000 Times Faster, Use Far Less Power

Graphene-coated copper could dramatically boost future CPU performance
• By Joel Hruska on February 21, 2017

Graphene-coated copper could dramatically boost future CPU performance

IBM builds graphene chip that’s 10,000 times faster, using standard CMOS processes


While current chips are made of silicon, the prototype processor is made of graphene carbon nanotubes, with resistive RAM (RRAM) layered over it. The team claims this makes for “the most complex nanoelectronic system ever made with emerging nanotechnologies,” creating a 3D computer architecture.
If you follow a lot of tech circles, you may have seen graphene (a super-thin layer of carbon arranged in such a way that it has electrical properties verging on miraculous) come up in the news quite a bit, receiving plaudits about its massively fluid electrical conductivity and possible applications in several different technologies. What you haven’t heard much of is the ugly part of graphene: It’s impossible to build semiconductor transistors out of the material as it stands now since it has no electrical band gap to speak of. If that sounds confusing, that’s alright. That’s what this article is for!
Band Gap? What’s That?
A band gap is a tiny space in between a conduction band and a valence band that tells us at what level current will actually flow between the two. It’s like a little gatekeeper that keeps an electrical charge in one space until it is “turned off.” Virtually all chips on computers are made of a semiconductor material, which means that it has a moderate band gap that makes it neither conduct electricity so readily nor reject every electrical charge. This has to do with basic molecular structure, so there is quite a bit of chemistry involved in building a chip.
Very large band gaps exist in materials like rubber which will resist electrical currents so much that it would much rather catch fire than retain the charge. That’s why you use rubber to insulate the wires inside of cables. Materials with a negligible band gap are known as conductors, while those with virtually no band gap whatsoever are known as superconductors.
Today most chips are made of silicon, which serves as a very sturdy and reliable semiconductor. Remember, we need semiconductors that can quickly be turned on and off at will, not superconductors, which will lose the charge they were given the moment the band no longer supplies it.
Why Is Graphene Not Good for Building Chips?
As I mentioned earlier, graphene is an extremely efficient conductor of electricity but nothing much more than that. It can push a charge at an incredible speed, but it cannot retain it. In a binary system you may need to retain data so that your running programs don’t just close the instant they open. It’s important in a RAM chip, for example, to ensure that the data inside it can stay put and remain readable for the foreseeable future. When a transistor is in the “on” state, it registers a “1.” In an “off” state, it registers a “0.” A superconductor would be unable to “switch off” because the difference between “on” and “off” voltage is so small (because of the tiny band gap I mentioned earlier).
That’s not to say that graphene wouldn’t have a place in a modern-day computer. It certainly could be used to deliver information from one point to another quickly. Also, if supplemented by other technology, we could possibly see graphene used in transistors at some point in the future. Whether that would be an efficient investment of capital is up to the industry to decide.
There’s Another Material! (One I believe has more promise)
One of the problems with silicon is its inflexibility when working on ultra-thin surfaces. A piece of silicon could only be shaved so thin for it to be functional. That’s why we were exploring the use of graphene in the first place (it’s one single atom thick). Since graphene may not prove promising without investing truckloads of money into its development, scientists began trying other materials, one of which is titanium trisulfide (TiS3). The material not only has the ability to function even at the thickness of a single molecule, but it also has a band gap very similar to that of silicon.
The implications of this are far-reaching for miniature technology products which pack a vast amount of hardware in a very constrained amount of space. Thinner materials will also dissipate heat more efficiently, making them favorable for large power-hungry computers.
Graphene As A Promising Material For Computer Processors
From the time Graphene technology has been introduced, It has gained popularity as one of the most advanced materials with diverse applications. It can be used in mechanical and biological engineering applications. Car manufacturers are taking advantage of its weight and strength, Making it an excellent choice of materials to be combined with polymer composites.
It is also popular as a choice for energy storage and for solar cells. Nonetheless, Recently, It has also generated buzz because of the introduction of the Graphene processor, Which is expected to improve computing in more ways than one. IBM Taking Advantage of Graphene Among others, IBM is one company that has expressed its serious commitment to building a Graphene processor, Which is expected to redefine the future of computers.
By 2019, The company expects to develop a processor that is smaller and more significantly powerful than what is available in the market today. The goal is to build IBM Graphene transistors that measures only 7 nanometres but unrivalled in terms of the power it can provide to the computers of the future. As a demonstration of being serious in the pursuit of this component in a Graphene CPU, The company has invested $3 billion to provide the funding necessary for the development of the technology and in having it polished before finally being introduced in the market.

The Technological Singularity

The technological singularity or simply The Singularity is the belief that the invention of artificial superintelligence (ASI) in combination with Neurochips will abruptly trigger runaway technological growth, resulting in unfathomable changes to human civilization and humans themselves. Many refer to the human change as becoming Cyborgs (Half-Machine and Half-Human). John von Neumann, Vernor Vinge and Ray Kurzweil define the concept in terms of the technological creation of super intelligence. They argue that it is difficult or impossible for present-day humans to predict what human beings’ lives would be like in a post-singularity world. Some such as myself, believe that the combination of such technologies as Molecular NanoTechnology, Neurochips (Computer Interface with Human Brains), and Artificial Intelligence may all combine to radically change the entire World and Human Society. Some even speculate that AI might bring about the end of Mankind. The Singularity may happen within the next 20 or 30 years if not sooner. A neurochip is a chip (integrated circuit/microprocessor) that is designed for the interaction with neuronal cells. In Science-Fiction there have been many stories of Cyborgs who have many mechanical or Machine based parts. However, I believe we are coming to a period where we may be able to use organic systems that may be far more compatible. We are even seeing the dawn of being able to create human organs or parts for replacement of failed organs. “Neuromorphic computing—the next big thing in artificial intelligence—is on fire.” This is a quote from an article from February 2018 by Shelley Fan ! Cybernetics is considered to be the Science of integration of Computers with people (inside of them). We may be in for some very interesting but also dangerous times ahead !

Now Available AMD Ryzen Laptops

HP, Lenovo, Acer and Dell are all now displaying Ryzen Laptops
Several Other companies have also joined the Bandwagon.
Prices range from about $580 to $800+ or even $1500+ for Ryzen 7
with 17 inch Screen.
Here is an example :- Acer Laptop Swift 3 SF315-41-R5LE AMD Ryzen 7 2700U (2.20 GHz) 8 GB Memory 256 GB SSD AMD Radeon Vega 10 15.6″ Windows 10 Home Price $921.00 (U.S.)

Another example is : –
HP Unveils EliteBook 700 G5, ProBook 645 G4 Laptops with Ryzen PRO [UPDATED]
by Anton Shilov on May 9, 2018 3:00 PM EST
https://www.anandtech.com/show/12731/hp-unveils-elitebook-700-probook-645-laptops-with-ryzen-pro
includes the 735, 745, and 755 models (Different Screen Sizes etc….)

8K Video Editing capable systems

This particular build is the AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1950X processor available on board. Based on AMD new’s game-changing ThreadRipper CPU architecture, the unit provides enough processing power for seamless 8K video editing in real-time. Moreover, the performance benefits of ThreadRipper surpass those of the Xeon and i9 line built by the engineers of team blue (Intel). Looking at the Cinebench scores comparing ThreadRipper, i9, and a Xeon processor, we found that AMD can achieve 37% better performance compared to Intel’s line of processors.
Even with both the i9 and ThreadRipper processors overclocked, AMD still manages to pull ahead of team blue’s flagship product. AMD’s ThreadRipper architecture can be hailed as an example of the progression of processor speeds today. A Geekbench comparison, where we compared the speeds of the Intel 6700K, the former standard for efficient video editing, against other processors, including the ThreadRipper.
It goes without saying that the other essential component for the efficiency of every video editing workstation, besides the processor, is the graphics card. In this build, we put to the test three different GPUs – the AMD Vega Frontier (Brand New) for those using DaVinci Resolve, NVIDIA 1080 Ti for those who want to take advantage of CUDA support when editing in Adobe Premiere Pro, and the AMD Radeon RX580 for those working on a budget. At the end of the day, the ThreadRipper-based beast was able to complete each task with low rendering times and no perceivable issues.
Regarding efficiency, the ThreadRipper/Vega combination blows the competition out of the water. After placing 14 LUTs on a 4K clip inside of DaVinci Resolve, the program was able to playback the footage flawlessly with only 35% CPU usage and 65% GPU usage, now we’re talking Editing Power !

If you think this editing PC wasn’t jaw-dropping enough, keep in mind that it can even handle the playback of 8K footage, which is the equivalent to playing four streams of 4K footage simultaneously. This type of performance is absolutely insane, especially when you consider that’s not edit-friendly codecs like ProRes or CineForm, but REDCODE Raw 8K footage. The fact that this machine can even handle such quality is an indisputable evidence of its computing power.

Meanwhile, here’s the full list of components you will need to build this 8K Video Editing Beast from scratch.
 Corsair Crystal Series 570X RGB Computer Case (B&H, Amazon US)
 EVGA SuperNOVA 850 G2 Power Supply (B&H, Amazon US)
 AMD Ryzen Threadripper 1950X CPU (B&H, Amazon US)
 ARCTIC Liquid Freezer 360, High-Performance CPU Water Cooler (Amazon US)
 GIGABYTE X399 AORUS Gaming 7 Motherboard (Amazon US)
 Ballistix Sport LT 64GB Kit RAM (B&H, Amazon US)
 Samsung 960 EVO Series – 1TB PCIe NVMe SSD (B&H, Amazon US)
 Corsair SP Series, SP120 RGB LED, 120mm High-Performance RGB LED Fan (B&H, Amazon US)
 AMD Radeon RX Vega Frontier 64 8GB Graphics Card, used in the video (for DaVinci Resolve) (B&H, Amazon US)
 NVIDIA GTX 1080 Ti 11GB Graphics Card (for Adobe Premiere Pro) (B&H, Amazon US)
 AMD Radeon RX 580 8GB Graphics Card (the budget option) (B&H, Amazon US)

As an alternative, here is some publicity from HP about the Power of their workstations : –

HP’S NEW Z8 WORKSTATION LETS YOU EDIT 8K IN REALTIME WITH UP TO 3TB RAM AND 48TB STORAGE
September 14, 2017
HP have revealed a truly insane powerhouse of a PC
Housing dual Xeon CPUs with 56 processing cores, Hewlett Packard’s new Z8 workstation takes up to 3TB of RAM (I know!) and 48TB of storage space. While a fully decked Z8 might be out of the price range of most creatives, the base price isn’t actually that bad, at a mere $2,439. For comparison, the 6 core Apple Mac Pro with 16GB RAM starts at $2,999.
There are actually three systems in HP’s new “Z” range. There’s the most powerful, the Z8, and then the imaginatively named Z4 and Z6 for not-quite-so-power-hungry users. Even the lowly Z4, though, is rather impressive.
Starting at only $1,249, the Z4 has a single 18 core Intel Xeon W-2155 CPU, up to 256GB RAM and 4TB internal storage. It’s aimed primarily at 3D CAD users. The Z6 starts at $1,919, for the base model, with 48 cores of Intel Xeon Platinum 8180 processor and supports up to 384GB RAM. The Z6 does support dual processors, too, and this is aimed more at photographers, video editors and visual effects artists.
The Z8, though, is built for the seriously hardcore. With 56 cores, 3TB RAM, 48TB storage, and 3x Nvidia Quadro P6000 graphics cards, it’s an absolute monster. Getting one to that spec, though, is probably going to be substantially more than the $2,439 base model price.
Of course, if you’re actually shooting and editing in 8K, even fully loaded, this computer is likely going to be nothing compared to what you paid for the camera.
HP Z4, Z6 and Z8 prices start at $1,249, $1,919 and $2,439 respectively, and should start to become available from October for the Z6 and Z8 and November for the Z4. You can find out more about them on the HP website.
Very sexy sounding machines, although personally I think I’ll stick to building my own. It’s easier on the wallet.
And, yes, there’s probably a typo on HP’s website. the Z4 doesn’t really support up to 256TB of RAM.

What are the system requirements to edit and produce an 8K video?
There are not actually hard-and-fast rules. Things like FCP X and Premiere Pro CC actually support 8K video editing now. You’ll want to make sure that you have a GPU supported by either product, and plenty of CPU and RAM (16GB at least).
However, most of all, you need blazing fast disks. USB3 is probably not going to cut it. You’ll need either an internal disk array (very large, very fast) or an external array on Thunderbolt or, better, Thunderbolt 2.
Mind you, if you are spending $100,000 for an 8K camera (like the Red WEAPON 8K), the computer’s really the least of your worries. You can buy whatever the manufacturer suggests.
Displaying your 8k video will be expensive. This size of video is currently used in huge venues and has two or three massive projectors. To avoid having the seam where the projectors overlap on a video one or two of the projectors will play a neutral background while the 2K/4K video is playing. A software/hardware presentation device is used to separate out the projector feeds.
But the big question is why 8K? No commercially available cameras can shoot it, no monitor can display it at full res and no single projector can project it without downscaling it. If you are looking to futureproof it a simple 4K version is way way easier to do on all fronts measurable and will be a viable standard for years to come. In fact a great deal of content that is effects heavy is still rendered in 2K to save render time.
In 2014 only 1% of American homes had 4K TV’s. We are sitting at about 10% now in early 2016 and estimates are that by 2020 it may be around 40-50% (source New York Times) that is just 4k.
8k over 4k will definately be on the side of diminishing returns.
The quantum jump from B&W TV to color was amazing. Everybody was blown away.
The hop from VHS to DVD was jaw dropping.
The switch from standard def to HD was stunning.
Going from HD to UHD is a nice improvement for some content.
The switch from 4k to 8k (whatever it will be called) will be ok but most people with average sized 8K TV’s will not even notice the difference over their old 4K set.
By 16k nobody will care anymore.

Télé et Ciné a Volonté !

Comme écrit dans un Article précédent (Boite TV), la Télé et le Cinéma a volonté est maintenant une chose de disponible. Par contre il est essentiel de faire des recherches et découvrir quels sont nos options ! Une visite au site ou les pages Web de les chaines locale est une bonne façon de découvrir des émissions gratuite en toute liberté ! Parfois ces mêmes Chaines de télévision on un service en ligne aussi, parfois gratuit et autres fois payant. Achat d’appareil tel que Apple TV ou Roku, ou même un Téléviseur avec Roku intégré est une façon rapide de profiter et faire essais de ces services. Apple Store et Google Play Store propose souvent des locations de Films ou des émissions de télésérie avec des prix de 99 sous a $3,00 ou plus (vérifié les termes des fois vous avez juste 48 heures afin de utilisation). Autres Services ou Site ONF.ca Gratuit (office National du Film), BANQ.qc.ca Gratuit (Biblioteque et Archives Nationales du Québec), Video.tva.ca Gratuit, Tou.tv ou ICI.tou.tv gratuit ou $6.99/mois. Plusieurs autres services Payant tel que Netflix, Amazon Prime Vidéo, etc… Lire article précédent sur les Boite TV pour plus d’ information !

Boite TV ?

Libérez-vous de votre câblodistributeur ! Une Boite TV ? Comme Apple TV, Roku box ou autres genre de technologie, la Boite TV donne accès a une énorme panoplie de Services et de Média disponible sur Internet. Un tel boitier est tout simplement un ordinateur avec des connexions et des ports pour permettre utilisation de Internet pour visionner ou téléchargé des Émissions TV et des Films. La plupart des Boites TV sont Androide ou Windows. Androide, est le même système d`opération que votre téléphone cellulaire (Sauf si Apple) ou votre Tablet, ainsi que plusieurs autres millions d’appareils a travers le Monde. Vous pouvez aussi téléchargé un Programme ou un fichier a votre boite tel que KODI et utilisé de cette façon. KODI est le développement de ce qui était a l’ origine XBMC (X-Box Media Center) a une version plus moderne (Kodi est maintenant a la version 17.6 Stable). Comme des millions de personnes au Canada et aux États Unis coupez les frais associés à votre service Câble ou autres. Accédez à plus de contenu. L’information d’intérêt publique la moins médiatisé par les Gouvernement Canadien et Américain (U.S.)
Le gouvernement Canadien a mis bien peu d’effort pour informer la population Canadienne de la gratuité de la réception du signal HD (haute définition) dans tous les foyers Canadiens.
Par exemple les États-Unis et la France ont des sites Web d’information sur la réception du signal HD, vous pouvez y retrouver une carte des positions des antennes émettrices du signal HD partout sur leur territoire. Ces outils sont inexistant au Canada, se qui fait bien l’affaire des fournisseurs de service payants de signal de télévision par câble ou par satellite. Avec une bonne Antenne il est possible de captez presque 21 Canaux ou Poste tel que Liste des canaux de télévision dont vous pouvez recevoir le signal en HD
Cette liste peut-être différente en fonction de la région du Québec ou vous installez l’antenne HD.

Canaux de télévision Canadiens : Radio-Canada – CTV – Global – V – Télé-Québec – CBC – City – Canal Savoir – TVA – ICI
Canaux de télévision Américains dont la réception se fait au Canada : CBS – FOX – NBC – ABC – PBS KIDS – CW TV – MeTV – Thirteen PBS – MHz Worldview – PBS – Create TV – World Compass – Local News and Weather

Plusieurs personnes sont furieuses quand elles apprennent qu’elles peuvent recevoir gratuitement la télévision en HD (Haute Définissions) à partir d’une simple antenne HD alors qu’elles paient mensuellement un abonnement. D’autant plus que le signal provenant de l’antenne est généralement de meilleure qualité que celui fourni par le câble ou par un satellite. Les fournisseurs compriment souvent leurs signaux afin d’inclure davantage de canaux.

Est-ce légal?
Au Canada, l’écoute en continu est légale car cela n’implique pas de réel téléchargement, l’œuvre n’étant pas enregistrée sur la console, La loi s’attaque à ceux qui rendent le contenu disponible sans autorisation préalable, et non à ceux qui accèdent audit contenu. Vous pouvez donc visionner le contenu désiré en toute tranquillité d’esprit et en toute légalité. Par ailleurs, il est impossible de retracer les personnes qui ne font que visionner du contenu en ligne sans le télécharger. La console ne fait que vous diriger vers des liens Internet en toute sécurité en écartant des potentiels virus ou d’autres programmes malveillants qui pourraient se trouver sur des sites d’écoute en continu.

Certaines personnes vous dira pourquoi une telle chose, alors pour moi aucun frais depuis plus de 20 mois pour tous mes postes et contenu, aucun frais de Cinéma, aucune Facture gonflé ! Les épargnes peuvent être énormes ! Aussi le nombre de Canaux et/ou les Films disponible dépasse de loin ce que mon fournisseur avait au prix que je payais ! Vous avez peut être entendu plusieurs différent termes ou des noms pour cette technologie tels que Streaming media device, TV box, IPTV box (IPTV services are usually a Monthly billing facturation mensuelle), set top boxes, media streamer, HTPC, Kodi box, et mon terme préféré Boite Android TV. Ils sont tous plus ou moins le même genre de chose – un appareil qui va chercher du contenu de votre réseaux ou Internet pour le projeter sur votre écran TV. Toutes les Télévisions moderne avec un port ou une connexion HDMI peuvent être utilisé avec une Boite TV. Une des parties les plus importantes est que si vous désirez avoir de la Haute Définition assurez vous d`avoir un service rapide (20+ Mbps faire le test avec speedtest.net) avec une bonne Bande Passante et beaucoup téléchargement (150Gb+) (Consulté votre fournisseur Internet pour les détails de votre service.)

N’oubliez pas de vérifier la capacité de téléchargement de votre forfait internet.
Comme vous visionnez les films et les télé-séries de votre TV BOX via internet, vous devez vous assurer d’avoir un forfait internet adéquat. Nous vous suggérons un forfait illimité de téléchargement. Surveillez votre utilisation de bande passante, sans quoi votre fournisseur pourrait vous facturer des frais de dépassement.
Exemple approximative: Pour écouter un film sur votre TV BOX de 1h30, vous utiliserez jusqu’à 3Go de votre transfert.

Maintenant il est possible de faire achat de TV avec Roku comme service dans votre téléviseur. Moi je possède une Télévision Roku ainsi que une Boite TV, avec deux Antennes externes qui me donne accès a toutes les stations / Canaux locaux disponible ! Soyez prudent si vous magasinez pour une Boite TV, plusieurs offres des Boites avec la technologie vielle de il y a deux ou trois ans ! Vous devriez vous offrir la meilleure et la plus récente que votre Budget vous permet avec autant de mémoire et stockage que possible. Les Boites Androide avec Kodi Installer sont les plus populaires présentement. En termes de technologie un minimum de S912 Octa Core CPU and 3GB RAM Memory 32GB ROM Storage/Stockage comme base. Certaines boites offres maintenant DDR4 Ram Memory qui est supéreur a DDR3 ! Achetez 2Gb ou plus de mémoire car 1Gb sera trop faible ! Two (2) GB RAM mémoire est un minimum dans mon opinion ! Évitez les anciens CPU (Coeur) tel que le S905 etc..
A votre KODI vous allez ajouter des Add-On tel que, Exodus, Covenant, Phoenix, SALT, ou autres. Pour le bonne résolution image Graphics/GPU devrait etre ARM Mali-T820 ou plus pour la Haute Définition High-Def ou 4K (Supporté par votre TV / TV must support High-Def or 4K in order to view it). version Androide 6.0 ou 7 pour la meilleure compatibilité. Les Prix varie entre approximatif $75 et $120 pour les Modeles plus Haute Gamme! Faites vos recherches avant de faire un achat !

TV Box, What is It ?

What is a TV Box and what can it do ? The answer while it is simple, TV Box can be complicated to setup or program.
A TV Box is basically a Micro Computer with connections and plugs to allow use of Internet to display and/or download TV and Movies. Much like the Apple TV or a Roku Device, a TV Box is a very small device. Most are either Android Based, or Windows. Android, this is the same operating system as the one probably running on your smartphone, tablet and millions of other devices throughout the world. There are some with different Operating Systems, but the majority are Android or Windows. You can also download a Program or File to your PC such as KODI and use that for the same purpose. KODI is the development of what was originally the XBMC (X-Box Media Center) to the now more modern version (Kodi is now at version 17.6 Stable). Some might ask why get such a thing, well for one thing I have not payed for Television or Cable or Movie Channels for almost 20 months! The savings can be enormous ! Also the channels and/or TV Programs I have available are greater than my original Cable had for me ! In addition the amount of Movies is almost overwhelming and way too much in some cases! You may have heard a lot of different terminology or names being thrown around different sites, forums and Facebook groups: Streaming media device, TV box, IPTV box (IPTV services are usually a Monthly billing), set top boxes, media streamer, HTPC, Kodi box, and my personal favorite the Android TV box. They’re all basically the same type of device – something that gets content from your home network or the Internet to your television. Almost any modern Television with an HDMI port can be used with a TV Box (Also HDMI). The other important part is to have an Internet Connection and best is a High-Speed with a lot of Badwidth (Consult your Local Internet Supplier for details of your current connection). The reason a High-Speed or Large Bandwidth is important is so that you do not get pauses or stops when viewing as this rapidly becomes annoying and frustrating. Also if you want to watch High_definition or 4K speed and bandwidth are a Must ! These days you cal also buy or have a Roku TV which has the ROKU part or service built-in on your TV. Personally I have both a ROKU TV and a TV Box, as well as a pair of External Antennas which give me all the Local Stations for absolutely Free ! Be careful if you shop or go for a TV Box a lot of people out there are selling them with Technology from two or even three years ago ! You want the most modern TV Box you can afford with all the Memory and Storage possible. Android TV Boxes with KODI Media Center are the most popular TV Boxes right now. In terms of technology you want to have as a minimum S912 Octa Core CPU and 3GB RAM Memory 32GB ROM Storage as a Base. Some boxes now offer DDR4 Ram Memory which is Superior to DDR3 ! Do not get 1GB RAM that will not be enough ! More Memory is better ! Two (2) GB RAM Memory is minimum in my opinion ! Also avoid older CPU’s like the S905 etc..
To your KODI you will need to add a 3rd Party Add-On such as Exodus, Phoenix, SALT, or other such Graphics/GPU should be a ARM Mali-T820 or better for the Box to have High-Def or 4K (TV must support High-Def or 4K in order to view it). Android version on TV Box should be a minimum of 6.0 or 7 for better compatibility. Prices typically are from about $75 or so for regular to over $120 for High End ones ! Do your Due Diligence and Research on any product before buying !

Une nouvelle norme sans fil à haut débit : 802.11ax

La norme sans fil à haut débit IEEE 802.11ax (HEW, High-Efficiency Wireless) en cours de validation promet un débit de données par utilisateur quatre fois plus rapide. Elle s’appuie sur des technologies multi-utilisateurs pour tirer le meilleur parti des canaux Wi-Fi disponibles et pour alimenter davantage d’appareils dans des environnements à grand nombre d’utilisateurs. Découvrez les nouvelles applications de la norme 802.11ax, les innovations techniques clés apportées à cette norme et les problématiques pour la tester et la mesurer.

Augmenter le débit utilisateur dans les zones denses (Un des Buts de cette nouvelle norme)
La première norme Wi-Fi 802.11b, ratifiée en 1999, présentait un débit maximal de 11 Mbit/s – un premier pas positif, certes, mais ces performances étaient toujours bien inférieures à celles d’une connexion filaire. Quatre années plus tard, la révision 802.11a/g augmentait la vitesse de transmission à 54 Mbit/s avec l’utilisation de la technologie de multiplexage par répartition orthogonale de la fréquence (OFDM).
L’avancée suivante correspond à l’arrivée du 802.11n, en 2009, qui fournit aux utilisateurs un débit binaire jusqu’à 150 Mbit/s. La révision 802.11ac datant de 2013 permet quant à elle un débit binaire de 866 Mbit/s par canal, avec des canaux plus larges (160 MHz) et des ordres de modulation plus élevés (256 QAM). Avec jusqu’à 8 canaux agrégés, cette merveille de l’ingénierie peut atteindre une vitesse de transmission théorique de 6,97 Gbit/s. Autant dire que l’arrivée du 802.11ac revient à passer d’une berline familiale à une Ferrari gonflée à bloc…

Cependant, un débit proche de 7 Gbit/s n’est atteignable que dans l’enceinte fermée et contrôlée d’un laboratoire RF. En réalité, les utilisateurs sont souvent confrontés à un trafic de données désespérément lent lorsqu’ils souhaitent consulter leur boîte mail avec une connexion Wi-Fi publique dans un terminal d’aéroport bondé. C’est à ce problème précis que devra remédier la future révision de la norme LAN sans fil IEEE 802.11, le 802.11ax.
La norme 802.11ax, également connue sous la dénomination HEW (High-Efficiency WLAN), a pour but ambitieux de quadrupler le débit moyen par utilisateur dans les zones denses. Au-delà de l’amélioration de la vitesse de transmission par rapport au 802.11ac, cette évolution consistera à mettre en œuvre des mécanismes destinés à fournir un débit de données plus important et plus fiable à davantage d’utilisateurs mobiles dans les zones d’utilisation intensive.
2. Caractéristiques principales et domaines d’application
Le HEW présente les caractéristiques suivantes :
 Rétrocompatibilité avec les normes 802.11a/b/g/n/ac
 Débit moyen par utilisateur quadruplé dans les zones denses (gares, aéroports et stades, notamment)
 Débits de données et largeur de voies similaires au 802.11ac, mais nouvelles caractéristiques de modulation et de codage (MCS 10 et 11) avec modulation 1024 QAM.
 Fonctionnement multi-utilisateur en liaisons montante et descendante au moyen des techniques OFDMA et MU-MIMO.
 FFT quatre fois plus grandes en OFDM, espacement des sous-porteuses divisé par quatre, et durée de symbole quatre fois plus longue pour de meilleures performances en extérieur et en environnements propices à l’évanouissement dû à la propagation par trajets multiples
 Flux de données plus fluide et meilleur accès aux canaux
 Gestion d’énergie plus efficace pour une meilleure autonomie de batterie

Le HEW (802.11ax) convient aux domaines d’application suivants :
 Délestage de données mobiles : d’ici 2020, 38,1 exaoctets de données seront générés chaque mois, ce qui dépasse le trafic mensuel de données cellulaires et mobiles prévu (30,6 exaoctets).[2] Cela équivaut à transférer sur ces réseaux plus de 6 000 films au format Blue-ray chaque minute.
 Environnements présentant de nombreux points d’accès ainsi qu’une forte concentration d’utilisateurs avec des appareils hétéroclites (Wi-Fi d’aéroport ≠ Wi-Fi domestique)
 Environnements mixtes intérieur/extérieur

Fonctionnement multi-utilisateur : MU-MIMO et OFDMA
La norme 802.11ax a deux modes de fonctionnement :
Utilisateur unique : dans ce mode séquentiel, les STA émettent et reçoivent des données les unes après les autres dès que l’accès au média est assuré, comme expliqué plus haut.
Multi-utilisateur : ce mode permet d’effectuer des opérations simultanées sur plusieurs stations non AP. La norme distingue également le mode multi-utilisateur en liaison montante du mode multi-utilisateur en liaison descendante.
 Le mode multi-utilisateur en liaison desendante fait référence aux données transmises en même temps par l’AP à plusieurs STA sans fil. La norme 802.11ac actuelle présente déjà cette caractéristique.
 Le multi-utilisateur en liaison montante correspond quant à lui au transfert simultané de données à partir de plusieurs STA vers l’AP. Il s’agit d’une nouvelle fonctionnalité propre au 802.11ax qu’aucune variante antérieure de la norme Wi-Fi ne présentait jusque là.

En mode de fonctionnement multi-utilisateur, la norme spécifie également deux méthodes différentes de multiplexage impliquant davantage d’utilisateurs dans une zone donnée : le MU-MIMO (entrées multiples, sorties multiples à utilisateurs multiples) et le MU-OFDMA (accès multiple par répartion orthogonale de la fréquence à utilisateurs multiples). Dans les deux cas, l’AP agit comme le centre de contrôle de tous les aspects relatifs au fonctionnement multi-utilisateur, de la même façon qu’une station de base cellulaire LTE contrôle le multiplexage de plusieurs utilisateurs. Un AP 802.11ax associe également le fonctionnement OFDMA au MU-MIMO.

MU-MIMO
En s’inspirant de la mise en œuvre du 802.11ac, les dispositifs 802.11ax utilisent des techniques de formation de faisceau pour diriger simultanément des paquets à des utilisateurs géographiquement dispersés. Ainsi, l’AP calcule une matrice de canal pour chaque utilisateur et dirige au même instant tous les faisceaux vers les différents utilisateurs, chaque faisceau contenant des paquets spécifiques à son destinataire. Le 802.11ax supporte jusqu’à huit transmissions MU-MIMO en même temps, soit quatre de plus que le 802.11ac. Par ailleurs, chaque transmission MU-MIMO se distingue par des caractéristiques de modulation et de codage (MCS) et un nombre de flux spatiaux particuliers. Dans le cadre du multiplexage spatial MU-MIMO, l’AP peut être comparé à une matrice de commutation Ethernet, qui réduit le domaine de collision d’un vaste réseau d’ordinateurs à un seul et unique port.
Nouvelle caractéristique de la liaison montante MU-MIMO : l’AP initie simultanément des transmissions montantes depuis chaque station au moyen d’une trame de déclenchement. Lorsque plusieurs utilisateurs y répondent en même temps en transmettant leur paquet, l’AP applique la matrice de canal aux faisceaux reçus et décompose les informations qu’ils contiennent. L’AP peut également initier des transmissions mutli-utilisateur montantes pour recevoir des informations de rétroaction de la part de toutes les STA concernées,

MU-OFDMA
La norme 802.11ax emprunte une technique propre à la technologie mobile 4G pour multiplexer davantage d’utilisateurs dans la même largeur de bande : l’accès mutliple par répartition orthogonale de la fréquence (OFDMA). En reprenant les schémas de modulation numériques reposant sur l’OFDM déjà utilisés par le 802.11ac, le 802.11ax assigne à chaque utilisateur individuel des ensembles particuliers de sous-porteuses. Cela signifie que les canaux 802.11 existants (de largeur 20, 40, 80 et 160 MHz) sont divisés en sous-canaux plus étroits avec un nombre prédéfini de sous-porteuses. Le 802.11ax puise aussi dans la terminologie LTE moderne puisque les plus petits sous-canaux, comportant au minimum 26 sous-porteuses, sont nommés « unités de ressources » (RU).
En fonction du trafic multi-utilisateur requis, l’AP détermine l’allocation des canaux de manière à toujours assigner toutes les RU disponibles en liaison descendante. Il peut allouer l’intégralité du canal à un seul utilisateur – comme c’est actuellement le cas avec le 802.11ac – ou le répartir entre plusieurs utilisateurs de manière simultanée

Donc comme Conclusion si vous avez pas investi dans un nouveau Équipement 802.11ac il sera bon d’attendre la venu de ces nouveaux équipements 802.11ax attendu vers la fin de cette année 2017 ou le début de 2018.

New WiFi standard 802.11ax or Why 802.11ax is the next big thing in Wi-Fi !

If you have not yet upgraded or purchased 802.11ac you should wait before Upgrading as a new WiFi standard much faster and better will soon be available !

802.11ax standard is the sixth generation of Wi-Fi Why 802.11ax is the next big thing in Wi-Fi !
Last week Broadcom became the third major vendor to announce availability of chips supporting the latest evolution of Wi-Fi. Broadcom’s 802.11ax chipset release includes three separate products for residential gateways, enterprise access points, and smartphones.
Broadcom says that their 802.11ax solution will be a massive boost to Wi-Fi quality, speed, and efficiency: Four times faster download, six times faster upload, four times better coverage, and seven times better battery life compared to current Wi-Fi using the 802.11ac standard.
The company has dubbed their solution ‘Max Wi-Fi’ and has launched this website for more details. The 802.11ax standard is the sixth generation of Wi-Fi technology to be released.
OFDMA is key to better Wi-Fi with 802.11ax
Much of the speed boost will come from wider channels (160 MHz), higher-order modulation (1024 QAM), and support for four streams of 802.11ax. But the most important feature of 802.11ax is arguably uplink and downlink OFDMA (scheduling), which will make this new generation of Wi-Fi operate in a manner similar to cellular networks.
The purpose of OFDMA is to do away with on-air packet collisions thus making Wi-Fi data transmissions faster and much more spectrum efficient. The feature means that 802.11ax will serve up much-improved Wi-Fi especially where the density of users and devices is high.
Eying a big residential market
Broadcom’s 802.11ax solution is likely – at least for starters – to be targeting the huge residential market for Wi-Fi-capable CPEs: This year some 180 million Wi-Fi-capable residential gateways will be shipped and that number is projected to grow to 200 million units by 2020. The company says that a four-family home will need connectivity for up to 50 Wi-Fi devices by 2022.
How enterprises & carriers will benefit
Broadcom’s 802.11ax products are packed with features (read the press release here) including power-saving ‘Target Wake Time’ that puts devices to sleep when they’re not exchanging data. Another direct benefit of OFDMA is improved Wi-Fi coverage resulting from an increase in the effective useful radio signal that can be received by Wi-Fi devices.
Wider coverage will likely be a significant boost to outdoor Wi-Fi in cities or on campuses. Coverage and quality improvements with 802.11ax should also make Wi-Fi a lot more attractive to carriers looking to serve consumers with low-cost data. Other current chipset vendors with 802.11ax products include Qualcomm and Quantenna.
The first 802.11ax products are expected to hit the markets at Christmas 2017 and/or early in 2018.

Why 802.11ax is the next big thing in Wi-Fi ?
IEEE 802.11ax is a type of WLAN in the IEEE 802.11 set of types of WLANs. It is designed to improve overall spectral efficiency, especially in dense deployment scenarios. It is still in a very early stage of development, but is predicted to have a top speed of around 10 Gb/s.[1] IEEE 802.11ax is designed to operate in the already existing 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz spectrums. In addition to utilizing MIMO and MU-MIMO, the new amendment introduces OFDMA to improve overall spectral efficiency, and higher order 1024 QAM modulation support for increased throughput. Though the nominal data rate is just 37 % higher than IEEE 802.11ac, the new amendment is expected to achieve a 4 × increase to user throughput—due to more efficient spectrum utilization.

802.11ax is significantly faster
Ax will be anywhere from 4x to 10x faster than existing Wi-Fi, but the wider and multiple channels greatly increase throughput. For example, if one assumes the speed is increased by 4x with 160 MHz channels, the speed of a single 802.11ax stream will be 3.5Gbps. The equivalent 802.11ac connection will be 866 Mbps. A 4×4 MIMO environment would result in a total capacity of about 14 Gbps. A client device that supported two or three streams would easily top 1 Gbps or much more.
If one knocked the channel width down to 40 MHz, which could happen in crowded areas like stadiums or college dorms, a single .11ax stream would be about 800 Mbps for a total capacity of 3.2 Gbps. Regardless of the channel size, 802.11ax will provide a huge boost in speed and total capacity.
802.11ax will be less congested
One of the big advancements in LTE is something called orthogonal frequency division multiple access (ODMFA), which is an alphabet soup way of saying it does frequency division multiplexing. With previous versions of Wi-Fi, channels were held open until the data transmission had finished. Think of a line at a bank with only one teller where people have to queue up. MU-MIMO means there can be four tellers and four lines, but the people still need to wait for the transaction ahead of them is complete.
With OFDMA, each channel is chopped up into hundreds of smaller sub-channels, each with a different frequency. The signals are then turned orthogonally (at right angles) so they can be stacked on top of each other and de-multiplexed. With the bank analogy, imagine a teller being able to handle multiple customers when they are free. So customer one hands the teller a check and while that person is signing the check, the teller deals with the next customer, etc. The use of OFDMA means up to 30 clients can share each channel instead of having to take turns broadcasting and listening on each.
From a user perspective, the network will seem much less congested than with 802.11ac. Another benefit is that the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands can be combined creating even more channels for data. The ax specification also includes something called QAM (quadrature amplitude modulation) encoding, which allows for more data to be transmitted per packet.
802.11ax improves battery life
Any new Wi-Fi standard will improve battery life, since the range is typically further and data is transmitted faster so the client does not need to work as hard. However, ax has a new feature called wake time scheduling. This enables APs to tell clients when to go to sleep and provides a schedule of when to wake. These are very short periods of time, but being able to sleep a bunch of short times will make a big difference on battery life.
I’ve talked with chip, AP and client device manufacturers about when to expect 802.11ax products, and we should see the first consumer Wi-Fi routers in the early part of 2018 with an outside shot of late 2017. After that, the business grade APs and clients will follow. We are certainly close enough that network managers should be starting the educational process and planning now.
If you’re not sure what this means for your business, talk to your Wi-Fi vendor, as all the major wireless LAN suppliers are planning to support 802.11ax. One final point: If you need to upgrade now, I certainly wouldn’t put if off and wait for ax. Wi-Fi is extremely important to businesses of all sizes and will become more important as the Internet of Things (IoT) becomes more widely adopted.
The evolution of client devices has been “game changing,” as there’s almost nothing we do that doesn’t involve them. The 802.11ax specification finally brings a Wi-Fi standard to the network that can support all of the things we want to do with our wireless LANs.

With Downlink MU MIMO a device may transmit concurrently to multiple receivers and with Uplink MU MIMO a device may simultaneously receive from multiple transmitters. Whereas OFDMA separates receivers to different RUs, with MU MIMO the devices are separated to different spatial streams. In 802.11ax, MU MIMO and OFDMA technologies can be used simultaneously. To enable uplink MU transmissions, the AP transmits a new control frame (Trigger) which contains scheduling information (RUs allocations for stations, modulation and coding scheme (MCS) that shall be used for each station). Furthermore, Trigger also provides synchronization for an uplink transmission, since the transmission starts SIFS after the end of Trigger.

Is 802.11ax Wi-Fi?
Yes, 802.11ax is the next version of Wi-Fi, and 802.11ax devices should be backward compatible with all existing Wi-Fi devices. You should absolutely get an 802.11ax device when they become available. There’s a new version of Wi-Fi about every four or five years. 802.11a and b started in 1999, followed by g in 2003, n in 2009, and ac in 2013 (with another revision in 2015).
There are a lot of other standards starting with 802.11. For instance, 802.11ad is ‘WiGig,’ which has extremely high speeds but poor wall penetration. 802.11p is a special kind of Wi-Fi to allow moving cars to talk to each other. 802.11u describes a way to easily connect to public hotspots otherwise known as “Hotspot 2.0.”

How Does 802.11ax Work?
802.11ax improves performance with several major new technologies.
• Improved multi-user MIMO means routers can steer wireless beams directly at up to right users at a time, up from from with 802.11ac. They can also now do this with both uploads and downloads, not just uploads as in 802.11ac.
• OFDMA means rather than having users take turns broadcasting and listening on each channel, up to 30 users will be able to share each channel.
• Combining the 2.4GHz and 5GHz bands creates more channels for data, and 1024 QAM encoding (which is an experimental feature in some 802.11ac routers) allows for more data per packet.
• Uplink scheduling takes some of the delay out of waiting for a free channel, as routers can tell clients when they’ll have time to listen for uploads.
• Wake time scheduling lets routers tell clients to take a nap until they have time to chat, scheduling when to wake up in advance. That helps save battery life.
What Are the Downsides of 802.11ax?
802.11ax is a hardware upgrade, not a software upgrade. To see real improvements with 802.11ax, you need both the router and client to support ax. Busy, public Wi-Fi systems like coffee shops and hotels may not upgrade their routers frequently.
You also need as many ax clients on the network as possible. As ax clients replace older, slower 802.11g or 802.11n clients, the overall network speed and capacity will increase. So, once again, it’ll take a few years before you really see 802.11ax capacity improvements on public Wi-Fi.
When Will 802.11ax Routers Go On Sale?
You should expect 802.11ax routers to come from all of the major router vendors, such as Netgear and D-Link, for the 2017 holiday season. The technology will appear in laptops and phones in 2018, and will probably be included in Qualcomm’s presumed next Snapdragon chip (along with Qualcomm’s new X20 modem) in 2018.

Please refer to the following article from PC Mag and Author Sascha Segan for all the details there : –
https://www.pcmag.com/article/351868/what-is-802-11ax-the-solution-to-crowded-wi-fi

New CPU’s from AMD and Intel

Brand New CPU’s from AMD and Intel that should mean Better Performance or Better Bang for your Bucks.
AMD has finally after a long wait come out with new CPU’s and Infrastructure built around them.
These are the RYZEN 3,5,& 7. Several Sites and Magazines are presently talking about them, and of course as always
for Canada delivery is later than in U.S. but should be starting to appear as I write this !
Here are some basics about the AMD CPU”s

Ryzen 3 Four Cores 10MB Cache
Ryzen 5 Four to Six Cores from 10 to 16MB Cache UP TO 12 tHREADS
Ryzen 7 Eight Cores 20MB Cache, 16 Threads
Ryzen Threadripper 8-16 Cores (32 processing Threads) from 20 to 40MB Cache
Motherboards need to support AM4 chipsets
AMD Ryzen™ 7 1700: World’s lowest power 8-core consumer desktop processor

Here are additional Détails : –

In the five years prior to the release of Ryzen, AMD’s direct competitor in the x86-64 consumer level CPU marketspace, Intel, has continued to grow its market share with the continued tick-tock cycle of their Intel Core series of chips. Since the release of their last CPU in 2011 AMD had fallen behind Intel significantly in both single-core and multi-core CPU performance benchmarks. While AMD had completed a die shrink and revision of their CPU architecture, performance and sales had fallen significantly against the competing Intel products. Ryzen is the first consumer level implementation of the new Zen microarchitecture. The Ryzen CPUs returned AMD to the high-end desktop CPU market, offering performance able to compete with Intel’s Core i7 series of CPUs. The Ryzen CPUs offer a stronger multi-threaded performance and weaker single-threaded performance relative to comparable Intel CPUs. Since the release of Ryzen CPUs, AMD’s CPU market share increased
• All models except Threadripper (which uses Socket TR4) require AMD Socket AM4. Meaning for mostr of us we bneed to buy a new Motherboard and possibly other add-ons !
• All models support DDR4-2666 ×2 Single Rank, DDR4-2400 ×2 Dual Rank, DDR4-2133 ×4 Single Rank, or DDR4-1866 ×4 Dual Rank.[6][8]
• All models support: x87, MMX, SSE, SSE2, SSE3, SSSE3, SSE4.1, SSE4.2, AES, CLMUL, AVX, AVX2, FMA, CVT16/F16C, ABM, BMI1, BMI2, SHA.[9]
• Transistors: 4.8 billion per 8-core “Zeppelin” die
• Ryzen CPUs feature unlocked multipliers across the board for overclocking. All Ryzen products support auto-overclocking, dubbed “XFR” (eXtended Frequency Range), with X branded Ryzen products giving twice the XFR boost as non-X branded Ryzen products (100 MHz overclock vs 50 MHz overclock),[13] although AMD does not list non-X branded Ryzen CPUs as having support for XFR. Of note, is that XFR values are doubled on Threadripper CPUs; with X models having 200MHz, rather than the usual 100MHz of XFR boost.[14]
• AMD officially revealed their codename “Summit Ridge” Ryzen CPUs on February 22, 2017.[15] Ryzen CPUs differ from Zen-powered APUs in that they exclude an integrated GPU and instead rely on an external, dedicated one.

• Ryzen is launching in conjunction with a line of stock coolers, the “Wraith Spire”, “Wraith Stealth” and “Wraith Max”. This line succeeds the original “Wraith” cooler, which was positively received when released in mid-2016.[16] The “Wraith Stealth” and “Wraith Spire” are included with certain Ryzen CPUs, as listed below. the “Stealth” is a low-profile unit meant for the lower-end CPUs and is rated for a TDP of 65W, whereas the “Spire” is the mainstream cooler with a TDP rating of 95W and modest headroom for overclocking, along with optional RGB lighting on certain models. The “Wraith Max” is a larger, aftermarket unit intended to handle more intensive overclocks than the “Spire”.
• All models support AMD’s SenseMI Technology, which uses AMD Infinity Control Fabric to offer the following features.[6][17][18]
o AMD Pure Power reduces the entire ramp of processor voltage and clock speed, for light loads.
o AMD Precision Boost increases the processor voltage and clock speed while the number of active cores <= 2, (4 on Threadripper CPU's). o AMD XFR (eXtended Frequency Range) increases the processor voltage and clock speed beyond the maximum Precision Boost, when sufficient cooling is available.[19] o Neural Net Prediction and Smart Prefetch use true AI inside the processor to optimize instruction workflow and cache management. Access the following for more information :- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ryzen OR The Intel reveal is the i9 7900 series with Top of the line being 7900XE for Extreme Edition 7900X is 10 Cores, with 20 Threads, 3.3Ghz frequency, Turbo Boost allows up to 4.5Ghz, support for DDR4 etc... 7900X. 7920X, 7940X,7960X, and the 7980X are the ones available. To Quote By Mark Hachman Senior Editor, PCWorld | AUG 28, 2017 4:40 PM PT Intel’s Core i9 processor is what happens when Intel begins to worry that it might not have the baddest chip on the block. If you’re desperate to know how it performs against AMD’s Threadripper, you’ll want to read up on the latest details on Core i9 speeds— and where’s that 12-core Core i9-7920X, anyway? Supposedly it launched on August 28, but hasn't shown up. Read on for the speeds, feeds, and prices of the new Core i9 chips, and all the details we have on the underlying technologies. In addition to the new Core i9 specs, we now know how the Core i9 performs as part of our review, and the price and availability of X299 motherboards. We’ll update this post with new information and testing as we receive it. Most likely to steal some attention away from the eagerly awaited AMD Threadripper reviews due soon, Intel filled in the remaining gaps on its spec sheet in early August. The company revealed the clock speeds, TDP power estimates, and ship dates for its four most powerful Core i9 chips: the 12-core Core i9-7920X, the 14-core Core i9-7940X, the 16-core Core i9-7960X, and the 18-core Core i9-7980XE. The 12-core Core i9-7920X launches August 28, while the 14-, 16-, and 18-core Core i9 chips ship on September 25. August 28 arrived, and... where’s the Core i9-7920X? That’s a great question. The chip doesn’t even appear on Amazon, and on Newegg, it’s backordered. Finally, Intel has announced all of the clock speeds of the Core i9 family. They’re all unlocked, too—ready and waiting to be overclocked. Here’s a summary of the core counts and prices of the Core i9 chips we do know, including clock speeds where available. Core i9 Extreme Edition: (All pricing in American Dollars) Core i9-7980XE: (2.6GHz, 4.4GHz burst) 18 cores/36 threads, $1,999 Core i9: Core i9-7960X: (2.8GHz, 4.4GHz burst) 16 cores/32 threads, $1,699 Core i9-7940X: (3.1GHz, 4.4GHz burst) 14 cores/28 threads, $1,399 Core i9-7920X: (3.1GHz, 4.4GHz burst) 12 cores/24 threads, $1,199 Core i9-7900X: (3.3GHz, 4.5GHz burst) 10 cores/20 threads, $999 Core i7: Core i7 7820X (3.6GHz, 4.5GHz burst), 8 cores/16 threads, $599 Core i7-7800X (3.5GHz, 4.0GHz burst), 6 cores/12 threads, $389 Core i7-7740X (4.3GHz, 4.5GHz burst), 4 cores/8 threads, $339 Core i5: Core i5-7640X (4.0GHz, 4.2GHz burst), 4 cores, 4 threads, $242 all use a new Socket R4, a 2,066-pin LGA socket that will require a brand-new motherboard. Intel’s Core i9 family is not backward-compatible with existing Skylake or Kaby Lake motherboards. For some reason, Intel decided that the 8-core and 6-core Skylake-X chips aren’t worthy enough, so they carry the Core i7 name. They share some common architectural features with the “true” Core i9 chips, though, so we’ve included them. The same goes for a second family of chips, known as Kaby Lake-X—basically the same seventh-generation CPUs you’ve seen on laptops and desktops for more than a year, but that also connect to the same X299 chipset as the Skylake-X chips do. The two Kaby Lake-X chips will be quad-core only parts. Remember that for now, every Core i9 motherboard you’ll buy is based on the Socket R4, a 2,066-pin LGA socket that’s incompatible with some of the older Core i5 and Core i7 microprocessors. (The Core i5-7640X, Core i7-7740X, Core i7-7800X, and Core i7-7820X all use the new 2,066-pin socket, too.) All of the new motherboards are based on Intel’s X299 chipset, the only chipset for the Intel Core i9 right now. For Further Details please read the entire Article at :- https://www.pcworld.com/article/3199955/components-processors/intel-core-i9-prices-specs-release-date-features-faqs.html